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angles, therefore the two Squadrons must stand at right angles to one another, as in Fig. 14. The upper surface of A is curved in rank, and horizontal in file ; that of Z is curved in file and horizontal in rank.

The Kinsmen in nearer degrees than Z will be represented by Squadrons whose forms are intermediate between A and Z. Front views of these are shown in

+L t1

0 _1 -t

Fig. 15. Consequently they will be somewhat curved both in rank and in file. Also as the Kinsmen of all the members of a Population, in any degree, are themselves a Population having similar characteristics to those of the Population of which they are part, it follows that the elements of every intermediate Squadron when they are broken up and sorted afresh into ordinary Schemes, would form identical Schemes. Therefore, it is clear that a law exists that connects the curvatures in rank and in file, of any Squadron. Both of the curvatures are Curves of Distribution ; let us call their Q values respectively r and f. Then if p be the Q of