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112   NATURAL INHERITANCE.   (CHAP.

Throw A into the form of a Squadron and not of a Scheme, and let us begin by confining our attention to the men who form any two of the rectangular files of A, that we please to select. Then let us trace their connections with their respective Kinsmen in Z. As the number of the Z Kinsmen to each of the A files is considered to be the same, and as their respective Stature-Schemes are supposed to be identical with that of the general Population, it follows that the two Schemes in Z derived from the two different rectangular files in A, will be identical with one another. Every other rectangular file in A will be similarly represented by another identical Scheme in Z. Therefore the 1,000 different rectangular files in A will produce 1,000 identical Schemes in Z, arranged as in Fig. 14.

Though all the Schemes in Z, contain the same number of measures, each will contain many more measures than were contained in the files of A, because the same kinsmen would usually be counted many times over. Thus a man may be counted as uncle to many nephews, and as nephew to many uncles. We will therefore (though it is hardly necessary to do so) suppose each of the files in Z to have been constructed from only a sample consisting of 1,000 persons, taken at random out of the more numerous measures to which it refers. By this treatment Z becomes an exact Squadron, consisting of 1,000 elements, both in rank and in file, and it is identical with A in its constitution, though not in its attitude. The ranks of Z, which are Schemes, have been derived from the files of A, which are rect-