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except where otherwise expressed. The factor I used was 1 which is equivalent to adding a little less than one-twelfth to each female height. It differs slightly from the factors employed by other anthropologists, who, moreover, differ a trifle between themselves ; anyhow, it suits my data better than 1'07 or 1.09. I can say confidently that the final result is not of a kind to be sensibly affected by these minute details, because it happened that owing to a mistaken direction, the computer to whom I first entrusted the figures used a somewhat different factor, yet the final results came out closely the same. These R.F.F. data have by no means the precision of the observations to be spoken of in the next paragraph. In many cases there remains considerable doubt whether the measurement refers to the height with the shoes on or off ; not a few of the entries are, I fear, only estimates, and the heights are commonly given only to the nearest inch. Still, speaking from a knowledge of many of the contributors, I am satisfied that a fair share of these returns are undoubtedly careful and thoroughly trustworthy, and as there is no sign or suspicion of bias, I have reason to place confidence in the values of the Means that are derived from them. They bear the internal tests that have been applied better than might have been expected, and when checked by the data described in the next paragraph, and cautiously treated, they are very valuable.

Special Data.-A second set of data, distinguished by the name of " Special observations," concern the