iv.] SCHEMES OF DISTRIBUTION AND OF FREQUENCY. 39

the height of the vertical lines to be erected at the corresponding Grades when we are engaged in constructing the Figure.

Let us begin with the third line in the Table for illustration : it tells us that 37 per cent. of the group had Strengths less than 70 lbs. Therefore, when drawing the figure, a perpendicular must be raised at the 37th grade to a height corresponding to that of 70 lbs. on the side scale. The fourth line in the Table tells us that 70 per cent. of the group had Strengths less than 80 lbs. ; therefore a perpendicular must be raised at the 70th Grade to a height corresponding to 80 lbs. We proceed in the same way with respect to the remaining figures, then we join the tops of these perpendiculars by straight lines.

As these observations of Strength have been sorted into only 7 groups, the trace formed by the lines that connect the tops of the few perpendiculars differs sensibly from a flowing curve, but when working with double minuteness, as mentioned above, the connecting lines differ little to the eye from the dotted curve. The dotted curve may then be accepted as that which would result if a separate perpendicular had been drawn for every observation, and if permission had been given to slightly smooth their irregularities. I call the figure that is bounded by such a curve as this, a Scheme of Distribution ; the perpendiculars that formed the scaffolding by which it was constructed having been first rubbed out. (See Fig 4, next page.)

A Scheme enables us in a moment to find the Grade