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Art of f Travel.

a fine point and turning it over, the extremity being hammered into a. small cut in the body of the needle, to prevent it from catching."-Sir S. Baker.


Parchment.-The substance which is called parchment when made from sheep or goat skins, and vellum when from those of calves, kids, or dead-born lambs, can also be made from any other skin. The raw hide is buried for one or two days, till the hair comes off easily; then it is taken out and well scraped. Next, a skewer is run in and out along each of its four sides, and strings being made fast to these skewers, the skin is very tightly stretched ; it is carefully scraped over as it lies on the stretch, by which means the water is squeezed out ; then it is rubbed with rough stones, as pumice or sandstone, after which it is allowed to dry, the strings by which the skewers are secured being tightened from time to time. If this parchment be used for writing, it will be found rather greasy, but washing it with ox-all will probably remedy this fault. (See " Ox-gall," p. 331.) In the regular preparation of parchment, the skin is soaked for a short time in a lime-pit before taking off the hairs, to get rid of the grease.

Catgut.-Steep the intestines of any animal in water for a
day, peel off the outer membrane, then turn the gut inside
out, which is easily to be
done by turning a very short
piece of it inside out, just as
you would turn up the cuff
of your sleeve; then, catch
ing hold of the turned-up
cuff, dip the whole into a
bucket, and scoop up a little
water between the cuff and
the rest of the gut. The
weight of this water will do
what is wanted : it will bear
down an additional length
of previously unturned gut;
and thus, by a few succes

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