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Mater for Drinking.   235

sent it by an ox-dray 30 miles, with orders to bury it and to return. Shortly after he despatched a light one-horse cart, carrying 36 gallons of water; the horse and man were to drink at the hide, and then to go on. Thus they had 36 gallons to supply them for a journey of 176 miles, or 6 days, at 30 miles a day, at the close of which they would return to the ox-hide-sleeping, in fact, 5 nights on 36 gallons of water. This a hardy, well-driven horse could do, even in the hottest climate.

To raise Water from Wells for Cattle.-By hand.-Let one man stand in the water, or just above it ; another 5 feet higher ; and again another higher still, if the depth of the well requires it. Then let the lowermost man dip a bucket in the water, and pass it from hand to hand, upwards ; the top man pours the water into a trough, out of which the cattle drink. This trough may be simply a ditch scratched in the ground ; a piece of canvas should be thrown over it, if the soil be sandy, to keep the water from being lost before the cattle have time to drink it. Thus Eyre speaks of watering his horse, out of his black servant's duck frock. Light guttapercha buckets are very useful in temperate climates ; and so are baskets, with oilcloth inside them.

The drove of cattle should be brought up to 60 yards from the watering-place; then three or four should be driven out -they will run at once to the water. After they have drunk, drive them to one side, and let another three or four take their place, and so on; keeping the two droves quite distinct -those that have drunk, and those that are waiting to drink. They will drink at the rate of one per minute; sheep and goats drink very much faster. Never let the cattle go in a rush to the well, else they will stamp it in, most of them will get no water, and they will all do a great deal of damage.

By horse power.-It does not fall within the scope of this book to describe water-wheels worked by cattle, or elaborate mechanism of any kind ; I therefore only mention under this head, that the Tartars sometimes draw water from their wells, of 150 feet deep and upwards, by a rider harnessing the bucket-rope to his horse, and galloping him off to a mark that tells the proper distance. Their ropes are of twisted hair,