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64   Art of Travel.

when he throws himself on the ground with his pack, and will not get up, it is not of much use to flog him ; twisting or biting his tail is the usual way, or making a blaze with grass and a few sticks under his nostrils. The stubbornness of a half-broken ox is sometimes beyond conception.

Cattle Bells, in countries where they can be used without danger, should always be taken ; it adds greatly to the cheerfulness and gregariousness of the animals-mules positively require them. Hard wood is sonorous enough for bells.

Brands and Cattle-marks.-In buying oxen out of the herds of pastoral people, it is very difficult to remember each animal so as to recognise it again if it strays back to its former home ; it requires quite a peculiar talent to do so. Therefore it is advisable that the traveller's cattle should be marked or branded. A trader in Namaqua Land, took red paint, and tied a brush on to a long stick ; with this he made a daub on the hind quarters of the freshly-bought and half-wild cattle, as they pushed through the door of his kraal. It naturally excites great ridicule among natives, to paint an ox that he may be known again ; but, for all that, I think the trader's plan well worth adopting. The same might be done to sheep, as a slit ear is not half conspicuous enough. A good way of marking a sheep's ear is to cut a wad out of the middle of it, with a gun-punch ; but it will sometimes tear this hole into a slit, by scratching with its foot.

Chaff, to cut.-Tie a sickle against a tree, with its blade projecting ; then, standing in front of the blade, hold a handful of reeds across it with both hands, one hand on either side of the blade ; pull it towards you, and the reeds will be cut through ; drop the cut end, seize the bundle afresh, and repeat the process. In this way, after a little practice, chaff is cut with great ease and quickness. A broken sickle does as well as a whole one, and a knife may be used, but the curve of its edge is ill adapted for the work.

Cattle will eat many sorts of herbage, as reeds and gorse, if cut small ; but will not touch them, if uncut.

Occasional Food for Cattle.-They will also eat seaweed and