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6   Art of Travel.

but not too aggressive, Caffres. In other cases small parties succeed better than large ones ; they excite less fear, do not eat up the country, and are less delayed by illness. The last fatal expedition of Mungo Park is full of warning to travellers who propose exploring with a large body of Europeans.

Solitary Travellers.-Neither sleepy nor deaf men are fit to travel quite alone. It is remarkable how often the qualities of wakefulness and watchfulness stand every party in good stead.

Servants.-Nature of Engagements.-The general duties that

a servant should be bound to, independently of those for which he is specially engaged, are-under penalty of his pay being stopped, and, it may be, of dismissal-to maintain discipline, take share of camp-duties and night-watch, and do all in his power to promote the success of the expedition. His wages should not be payable to him in full, till the return of the party to the town from which it started, or to some other civilised place. It is best that all clothing, bedding, &c., that the men may require, should be issued out and given to them as a present, and that none of their own old clothes should be allowed to be taken. They are more careful of what is their own; and, by supplying the things yourself, you can be sure that they are good in quality, uniform in appearance, and equal in weight, while this last is ascertainable.

The following Form of Agreement is abridged from one that was used in Mr. Austin's expedition in Australia. It seems short, explicit, and reasonable :

"We, the undersigned, forming an expedition about to explore the interior of -, under Mr. A., consent to place ourselves (horses and equipments) entirely and unreservedly under his orders for the above purpose, from the date hereof until

our return to -, or, on failure in this respect, to abide all consequences that may result. We fully recognise Mr. B. as the second, and Mr. C. as the third in command ; and the right of succession to the command and entire charge of the party in the order thus stated.

°` We severally undertake to use our best endeavours to promote the harmony of the party, and the success of the expedition.

In witness whereof we sign our names.

(Here follow the signatures.)

Read over and signed by the respective parties, in my presence."

(Here follows the signature of some person of importance in the place where the

expedition is organised.)

)F -