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Organising an Expedition.


the hound." Dr. Kane, who was one of the most adventurous of travellers, was by no means a strong man, either in health or muscle.

Good Temper.-Tedious journeys are apt to make companions irritable one to another ; but under hard circumstances, a traveller does his duty best who doubles his kindliness of manner to those about him, and takes harsh words gently, and without retort. He should make it a point of duty to do so. It is at those times very superfluous to show too much punctiliousness about keeping up one's dignity, and so forth; since the difficulty lies not in taking up quarrels, but in avoiding them.

Reluctant Servants.-Great allowance should be made for the reluctant co-operation of servants ; they have infinitely less interest in the success of the expedition than their leaders, for they derive but little credit from it. They argue thus :" Why should we do more than we knowingly undertook, and strain our constitutions and peril our lives in enterprises about which we are indifferent?" It will, perhaps, surprise a leader who, having ascertained to what frugal habits a bush servant is inured, learns on trial, how desperately he clings to those few luxuries which he has always had. Thus, speaking generally, a Cape servant is happy on meat, coffee, and biscuit ; but, if the coffee or biscuit has to be stopped for a few days, he is ready for mutiny.


Size of Party.-The best size for a party depends on many considerations. It should admit of being divided into two parts, each strong enough to take care of itself, and in each of which is one person at least able to write a letter,-which bush servants, excellent in every other particular, are too often unable to do. In travel through a disorganised country, where there are small chiefs and bands of marauders, a large party is necessary ; thus the great success of Livingstone's earlier expeditions was largely due to his being provided with an unusually strong escort of well-armed and warlike,