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Early Anthropological Researches   105

But Galton found 48 sons per 100 fathers! Now I have already referred (p. 96) to my doubts as to Galton's estimate of the number of relatives to be attributed in each grade to an eminent man. He was perhaps biased by the wickedness of Judges and the misogyny of Statesmen ! Anyhow I feel certain that the columns C of his tables and consequently the columns D are incorrect'. Had he attributed 200 or 250 sons to 100 eminent fathers or families, say, of 4 to 5, he would have found 19 to 24 eminent sons to 100 eminent fathers-still far too many-but approaching nearer our 13 with a

 
 

Eminence 1 in 1000

Father

Eminence 1 in 500

Father

Eminence 1 in 100

Father

 

Non-

eminent

Eminent

Totals

Non-

eminent

Eminent

Totals

Non-

eminent

Eminent

Totals

Son Non-eminent

{Eminent

998,054

946

999,000

996,139

1,861

998,000

581,298

8,702

990,000

 

946

54

1,000

1,861

139

2,000

8,702

1,298

10,000

Totals ...   ...

999,000

1000

,000,000

998,000

2,000

1,000,000

990,000

10,000

1,000,000

No. of eminent

sons per 100 emi-

5.5

7

182

nent fathers

     

much lower degree, however, of eminence. An explanation of the remaining discrepancy may, however, be found in the hint' thrown out by Galton in this chapter, that "a large number of eminent men marry eminent women'." He had already emphasised this point of view when discussing Men of Science and Divines. But such a mating of `like with like' raises the correlation between offspring and parents slightly under 50 °/ab: Forming a table under these conditions we find for 1 in 100 degree of eminence



' Loc. cit. p. 317 for general table, and compare tables at end of each section. This is much of the order one finds for number of insane sons of insane fathers.

3 Loc. cit. p. 325.

' "The large number of eminent descendants from illustrious men must not be looked upon as expressing the results of their marriage with mediocre women, for the average ability of the wives of such men is above mediocrity. This is my strong conviction, after reading very many biographies, although it clashes with a commonly expressed opinion that clever men marry silly women. It is not easy to prove my point without a considerable mass of quotations to show the estimation in which the wives of a large body of illustrious men were held by their intimate friends, but the following two arguments are not without weight. First, the lady whom a man marries is very commonly one whom he has often met in the society of his own friends, and therefore not likely to be a silly woman. She is also usually related to some of them, and therefore has a probability of being hereditarily gifted." (p. 324.)

s The multiple correlation coefficient between parentage and offspring is now •7071.

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