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XI Q   SUMMARY.   195

kinship is so distant that its effects are not worth taking into account, the peculiarity of the man, however remarkable it may have been, is reduced to zero in his kinsmen. This apparent paradox is fundamentally due to the greater frequency of mediocre deviations than of extreme ones, occurring between limits separated by equal widths.

Two causes affect family resemblance ; the one is Heredity, the other is Circumstance. That which is transmitted is only a sample taken partly through the operation of "accidents," out of a store of otherwise unused material, and circumstance must always play a large part in the selection of the sample. Circumstance comprises all the additional accidents, and all the peculiarities of nurture both before and after birth, and every influence that may conduce to make the characteristics of one brother differ from those of another. The circumstances of nurture are more varied in Co-Fraternities than in Fraternities, and the Grandparents and previous ancestry of members of Co-Fraternities differ; consequently Co-Fraternals differ among themselves more widely than Fraternals.

The average contributions of each separate ancestor to the heritage of the child were determined apparently within narrow limits, for a couple of generations at least. The results proved to be very simple ; they assign an average of one quarter from each parent, and one sixteenth from each grandparent. According to this geometrical scale continued indefinitely backwards, the total heritage of the child would be