8t, NATURAL INHERITANCE. [CHAP,
thicknesses of more than a hundred bodily parts, each so distinct from the rest as to have earned a name by which it can be specified. The list includes about fifty separate bones, situated in the skull, the spine, the pelvis, the two legs, and in the two ankles and feet. The bones in both the lower limbs have to be counted, because the Stature depends upon their average length. The two cartilages interposed between adjacent bones, wherever there is a movable joint, and the single cartilage in other cases, are rather more numerous than the bones themselves. The fleshy parts of the scalp of the head and of the soles of the feet conclude the list Account should also be taken of the shape and set of the many bones which conduce to a more or less arched instep, straight back, or high head. I noticed in the skeleton of O'Brien, the Irish giant, at the College of Surgeons, which is the tallest skeleton in any English museum, that his great stature of about 7 feet 7 inches would have been a trifle increased if the faces of his dorsal vertebrae had been more parallel than they are, and his back consequently straighter.
This multiplicity of elements, whose variations are to some degree independent of one another, some tending to lengthen the total stature, others to shorten it, corresponds to an equal number of sets of rows of pins in the apparatus Fig. 7, p. 63, by which the cause of variability was illustrated. The larger the number of these variable elements, the more nearly does the variability of their sum assume a "Normal" character, though
the approximation increases only as the square root of