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iv.] SCHEMES OF DISTRIBUTION AND OF FREQUENCY. 49

by the process of comparison. Suppose the second Scheme to refer to the successes of students from another hospital, we should draw the two Schemes in opposed directions, just as was done in the Strength of Pull of Males and Females, Fig. 5, and determine the Grade in either of the Schemes at which success was equal.

Schemes of Frequency.-The method of arranging observations in an orderly manner that is generally employed by statisticians, is shown in Fig. 3, page 38, which expresses the same facts as Fig. 2 under a different aspect, and so gives rise to the well-known Curve of "Frequency of Error," though in Fig. 3 the curve is turned at right angles to the position in which it is usually drawn. It is so placed in order to show more clearly its relation to the Curve of Distribution. The Curve of Frequency is far less convenient than that of Distribution, for the purposes just described and for most of those to be hereafter spoken of. But the Curve of Frequency has other uses, of which advantage will be taken later on, and to which it is unnecessary now to refer.

A Scheme as explained thus far, is nothing more than a compendium of a mass of observations which, on being marshalled in an orderly manner, fall into a diagram whose contour is so regular, simple,. and bold, as to admit of being described by a few numerals (Table 2), from which it can at any time be drawn afresh. The regular distribution of the several faculties among a large population is little disturbed by the fact that its

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