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of acquired faculties requires to be closely criticized. For example, a woman who was sober becomes a drunkard. Her children born during the period of her sobriety are said to be quite healthy ; her subsequent children are said to be neurotic. The objections to accepting this as a valid instance in point are many. The woman's tissues must have been drenched with alcohol, and the unborn infant alcoholised during all its existence in that state. The quality of the mother's milk would be bad. The surroundings of a home under the charge of a drunken woman would be prejudicial to the health of a growing child. No wonder. that it became neurotic. Again, a large number of diseases are conveyed by germs capable of passing from the tissues of the mother into those of the unborn child otherwise than through the blood. Moreover it must be recollected that the connection between the unborn child and the mother is hardly more intimate than that between some parasites and the animals on which they live. Not a single nerve has been traced between them, not a drop of blood 1 has been found to pass from the mother to the child. The unborn child together with the growth to which it is attached, and which is afterwards thrown off, have their own vascular system to themselves, entirely independent of that of the mother. If in an anatomical preparation the veins of the mother are injected with a coloured fluid, none of it enters the veins of the child ; conversely, if the veins of the child

i See Lectures by William 0. Priestley, M.D. (Churchill, London, 1860), pp. 50, 52, 55, 59, and 64.