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now made of it will be better understood through an illustration. Thus, many of the modern buildings in Italy are historically known to have been built out of the pillaged structures of older days. Here we may observe a column or a lintel serving the same purpose for a second time, and perhaps bearing an inscription that testifies to its origin, while as to the other stones, though the mason may have chipped them here and there, and altered their shapes a little, few, if any, came direct from the quarry. This simile gives a rude though true idea of the exact meaning of Particulate Inheritance, namely, that each piece of the new structure is derived from a corresponding piece of some older one, as a lintel was derived from a lintel, a column from a column, a piece of wall from a piece of wall.

I will pursue this rough simile just one step further, which is as much as it will bear. Suppose we were building a house with second-hand materials carted from a dealer's yard, we should often find considerable portions of the same old houses to be still grouped together. Materials derived from various structures might have been moved and much shuffled together in the yard, yet pieces from the same source would frequently remain in juxtaposition and it may be entangled. They would lie side by side ready to be carted away at the same time and to be re-erected together anew. So in the process of transmission by inheritance, elements derived from the same ancestor are apt to appear in large groups, just as if they had clung together in the pre-embryonic stage, as perhaps