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iv.] EDUCATION. 259

those of political and social life, must always be powerfully reinforced by the very general inclination of women to exert their influence in the latter direction. Again, those who select some branch of science as a profession, must do so in spite of the fact that it is more unremunerative than any other pursuit. A great and salutary change has undoubtedly come over the feeling of the nation since the time when the present leading men of science were boys, for education was at that time conducted in the interests of the clergy, and was strongly opposed to science. It crushed the inquiring spirit, the love of observation, the pursuit of inductive studies, the habit of independent thought, and it protected classics and mathematics by giving them the monopoly of all prizes for intellectual work, such as scholarships, fellowships, church livings, canonries, bishoprics, and the rest. This gigantic monopoly is yielding, but obstinately and slowly, and it is unlikely that the friends of science will be able, for many years to come, to relax their efforts in educational reform. As regards the future provision