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264   Art of Travel.

are commonly made in lakes that are destitute of any real ones, in order that they may become a resort of wild-fowl.

Javelins.-Heavy poisoned javelins, hung over elephant and hippopotamus paths, and dropped on a catch being touched, after the manner of a springe, are used generally in Africa. They sometimes consist of a "sharp little assegai, or spike, most thoroughly poisoned, and stuck firmly into the end of a heavy block of thornwood, about four feet long and five inches in diameter. This formidable affair is suspended over the centre of a sea-cow path, at about thirty feet from the ground, by a bark cord, which passes over a high branch of a tree, and thence, by a peg, on one side of a path beneath." (Gordon Cumming.)

Trigger.-Where a trigger has to release a strong spring, an arrangement on the principle of a figure of 4 trap is, I believe, the most delicate : the standard maybe a branch or the stock of a tree ; and the other pieces should be hardened by fire.

Pitfalls.-Very small pitfalls, with sharpened stakes, planted inside them, that have been baked hard by the fire and well poisoned, are easily to be set, but they are very dangerous to man and beast. In preparing a pitfall for animals of prey, it is usual to ascertain whether they are deep enough, by putting in a large dog ; if he cannot get out, it is very unlikely that any wild beast can. (See " Trous de loup," p. 312.)

Pitfalls are often dug in great numbers, near frequented watering-places, to which numerous intersecting paths lead by stopping up particular paths, the pitfalls can be brought separately into use ; therefore, those pitfalls need never be employed in which animals have been freshly killed, and where the smell of blood would scare the game. It is difficult to prevent the covers of pitfalls becoming hollow : the only way is to build the roofs in somewhat of an arch, so as to allow room for subsidence. If a herd of anim'als be driven over pitfalls, some are sure to be pushed in, as the crush makes it impossible for the beasts, however wary, to pick their way.

Uganda Thorn-wreath.-Captain Grant found a very ingenious contrivance in use in Uganda, in Africa. Two small

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