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Gun;Fittings and Ammunition.   249

tried. Some savages-as, for instance, those of Timor-when in want of bullets, use stones two or three inches long. Some good sportsmen insist on the advantage, for shooting at very close quarters, of cleaving a conical bullet nearly down to its base, into four parts ; these partly separate, and make a fearful wound. I suppose that the bullet leaves the gun with the same force as if it were entire ; and that it traverses too short a distance for its altered form to tell seriously upon its speed when it strikes, it acts like chain-shot.

Bullets, to carry.-Bullets should be carried sewn up in their patches, for the convenience of loading, and they should not fit too tight : a few may be carried bare, for the sake of rapid loading.

Recovering Bullets.-When ammunition is scarce, make a practice of recovering the bullets that may have been shot into a beast ; if they are of spelter, they will be found to have been very little knocked out of shape, and may often be used again, without recasting.

Shot and Slugs.-Travellers frequently omit to take enough shot, which is a great mistake, as birds are always to be found, while large game is uncertain : besides this, shot gives amusement; and ducks, quails, and partridges are much better eating than antelopes and buffaloes. It must be borne in mind, that a rifle will carry shot quite well enough, on an emergency. Probably No. 7 is the most convenient size for shot, as the birds are likely to be tame ; and also because a traveller can often fire into a covey or dense flight of birdsand the more pellets, the more execution. If -birds are to be killed for stuffing, dust-shot will also be wanted ; otherwise, it is undoubtedly better to take only one size of shot.

Shot is made in manufactories, as follows:-Arsenic is added to the lead, in the proportion of from 3 lbs. to 8 lbs. of arsenic to 1000 lbs. of lead. The melted lead is poured through cullenders drilled with very fine holes, and drops many feet down, into a tub of water ; 100 feet fall is necessary for manufactories in which No. 4 shot is made ; 150, for larger sorts. If the shot turns out to be lens-shaped, there has been too much arsenic ; if hollow, flattened, or tailed, there has been too little. Pewter or tin is bad, as it makes tailed shot. The