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T,Vater for Drinking.   211

could make it, but he should be begged to use first-rate tea. The extract from first-rate tea makes a very drinkable infusion, but that from second-rate tea is not good, the drink made from the extract being always a grade inferior to that made directly from the leaves. By pouring a small quantity of the extract into warm water, the tea is made ; and, though inferior in taste to properly made tea, it has an equally good effect on the digestion.

Extract of coffee is well known. I believe it can be made of very good quality', but what is usually sold seems to me to be very much the contrary and not to be wholesome.

Tea and Coffee, without hot water.-In Unyoro, Sir S. Baker

says, they have no idea of using coffee as a drink, but simply chew it raw as a stimulant. In Chinese Tartary, travellers who have no means of making a cup of tea, will chew the leaves as a substitute. Mr. Atkinson told me how very grateful he had found this makeshift.


General Remarks.-In most of those countries where travelling is arduous, it is the daily care of an explorer to obtain water, for his own use and for that of his caravan. Should he be travelling in regions that are for the most part arid and rarely visited by showers, he must look for his supplies in ponds made by the drainage of a large extent of country, or in those left here and there along the beds of partly dried-up water-courses, or in fountains. If he be unsuccessful in his search, or when the dry season of the year has advanced, and all water has disappeared from the surface of the land, there remains no alternative for him but to dig wells where there are marks to show that pools formerly lay, or where there are other signs that well-water may be obtained.

Short Stages.-I may here remark that it is a good general rule for an explorer of an arid country, when lie happens to come to water, after not less than three hours' travelling, to stop and encamp by it; it is better for him to avail himself