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Food'   205

smaller ones for the rest of the things ; it had a flap to tie over it, which was kept down with a button.

Cups.-Each of the men, on a riding expedition, should carry his own tin mug, either tied to his waist or to his saddle. A wooden bowl is the best vessel for tea, and even for soup, if you have means of frequently washing it : tin mugs burn the lips too much. Wooden bowls are always used in Thibet ; they are cut out of the knots that are found in timber.

Spoons.-It is easy to replace a lost spoon by cutting a new one out of hard wood, or by making one of horn. (See "Horn.")

Fireplaces for Cooking.-The most elementary fireplace consists of three stones in a triangle, to support the pot. If stones are not procurable, three piles of mud, or three stakes of green-wood driven into the earth, are an equivalent. Small recesses neatly cut in a bank, one for each fireplace, are much used, when the fuel is dry and well prepared. A more elaborate plan is to excavate a

shallow saucer-like hole in the ground, a foot or eighteen inches in diameter, and kneading the soil so excavated into a circular wall, with a doorway in the wind

ward side : the upper surface is curved, so

as to leave three pointed turrets, upon

which the cooking-vessel rests, as in the sketch. Thus the wind enters at the doorway, and the flames. issue through the curved depressions at the top, and lick round the cookingvessel placed above. The wall is sometimes built of stones.

Trenches and Holes.-In cooking for a large party with a small supply of fuel, either dig a narrow trench, above which all the pots and kettles may stand in a row, and in which the fire is made,-the mouth being open to the wind, and a small chimney built at the other end;-or else dig a round hole, one foot deep, and place the pots in a ring on its edge, half resting on the earth, and half overlapping the hole. A space will remain in the middle of them, and through this the fire


must be fed.

Esjuimaux Lamp.-The cooking of the Esquimaux is wholly