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Bivouac.   139

On Heather.-Mr. St. John tells us of an excellent way in which Highland poachers, when in a party, usually pass frosty nights on the moor-side. They cut quantities of heather, and strew part of it as a bed on the ground ; then all the party lie down, side by side, excepting one man, whose place among the rest is kept vacant for him. His business is to spread

plaids upon them as they lie, and to heap up the remainder of the heather upon the plaids. This being accomplished, the man wriggles and works himself into the gap that has been left for him in the midst of his comrades.

On Snow.-I shall have to describe snow-houses and snowwalls covered with sail-cloth, under " Huts." Here I will speak of more simple arrangements. Dr. Kane says:-" We afterwards learnt to modify and reduce our travelling'-eear, and found that in direct proportion to its simplicity and to our