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i i o   Art of Travel.

but seldom required." (Sir Francis Head, in Times, Jan. 1855.)

Snow.-Sir R. Dalyell tells me that it is the practice of muleteers in the neighbourhood of Erzeroum, when their animals lose their way and flounder in the deep snow, to spread a horse-cloth or other thick rug from off their packs upon the snow in front of them. The animals step upon it and extricate themselves easily. I have practised walking across deep snow-drifts on this principle, with perfect success.

Weak Ice.-Water that is slightly frozen is made to bear a heavy wagon, by cutting reeds, strewing them thickly on the ice, and pouring water upon them; when the whole is frozen into a firm mass the process must be repeated.

Bridges.-Flying Bridges are well known : a long cord or chain of poles is made fast to a rock or an anchor in the middle of a river. The other end is attached to the ferryboat, which being so slewed as to receive the force of the current obliquely, traverses the river from side to side.

Bridges of Felled Trees.-If you are at the side of a narrow but deep and rapid river, on the banks of, which trees grow long enough to reach across, one or more may be felled, confining the trunk to its own bank, and letting the current force the head round to the opposite side ; but if " the river be too wide to be spanned by one tree-and if two or three men can in any manner be got across-let a large tree be felled into the water on each side, and placed close to the banks opposite to each other, with their heads lying up-streamwards. Fasten a rope to the head of each tree, confine the trunks, shove the head off to receive the force of the current, and ease off the ropes, so that the branches may meet in the middle of the river at an angle pointing upwards. The branches of the trees will be jammed together by the force of the current, and so be sufficiently united as to form a tolerable communication, especially when a few of the upper branches have been cleared away. If insufficient, towards the middle of the river, to bear the weight of men crossing, a few stakes with forks left near their heads, may be thrust down through the branches of the trees to support them." (Sir H. Douglas)

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