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Fords and Bridges.   107

principle, vessels have been steered out of danger when caught by a dense fog close to a rocky coast.

Awning.-The best is a wagon-roof awning, made simply of a couple of parallel poles, into which the ends of the bent ribs of the roof are set, without any other cross-pieces. This roof should be of two feet larger span than the width of the boat, and should rest upon prolongations of the thwarts, or else upon crooked knees of wood. One arm of each of the knees is upright, and is made fast to the inside of the boat, while the other is horizontal and projects outside it : it is on these horizontal and projecting arms that the roof rests, and to which it is lashed. Such an awning is airy, roomy, and does not interfere with rowing, if the rowlocks are fixed to the poles. It also makes an excellent cabin for sleeping in at night.

Sail Tent.-A boat's sail is turned into a tent by erecting a gable-shaped framework : the mast or other spar being the ridge-pole, and a pair

of crossed oars lashed together supporting it at either end ; and the whole is made stable by a couple of ropes and pegs. Then the sail is thrown across,.

the ridge-pole (not over the crossed tops of the oars, for they would fret it), and is pegged out below. The natural fall of the canvas tends to close the two ends, as with curtains.

Tree-snakes.-Where these abound, travellers on rivers with overhanging branches should beware of keeping too near inshore, lest the rigging of the boat should brush down the snakes.


Fords.-In fording a swift stream, carry heavy stones in your hand, for you require weight to resist the force of the current: indeed, the deeper you wade, the more weight you require ; though you have so much the less at command, on account of the water buoying you up.