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Rafts and Boats.   105

Log.-For a log use a conical canvas bag thus

When the peg is drawn out by the usual jerk, the bag no longer presents its mouth to the water, but is easily drawn in by the line attached to its point.

Boat Building.-Caulking.-Almost anything that is fibrous does for caulking the seams of a boat. The inner bark of trees is one of the readiest materials.

Securing Planks.-In default of nails, it is possible to drill or to burn holes in the planks and to sew them together with strips of hide, woodbine, or string made from the inner bark of fibrous trees. Holes may be drilled on precisely the same principle as that which I have described in making fire by friction.

Lengthening Boats.-If you have an ordinary boat, and wish to make it of greater burden, saw it in half and lengthen it. Comparatively coarse carpentering is good enough for this purpose.

Boat Management.-Hauling boats on Shore.-To haul up a boat on a barren shore, with but a few hands, lay out the anchor ahead of her to make fast your purchase to ; or back the body of a wagon underneath the boat as she floats, and so draw her out upon wheels. A make-shift framework, on small solid wheels, has been used and recommended.

Towing.-A good way of fastening a tow-rope to a boat that has no mast is shown in the diagram, which, however, is very coarsely drawn. A curved pole is lashed alongside one of the knees of the boat, and the tow-rope, passing with a turn or two round its end, is carried on to the stern of the boat. By taking a few turns, more or less, with the rope