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100   Art of Travel.

clipped on either side, when necessary, to make them take the curves.

" The measure round the gunwale may now be taken within the edge of the tin, and an iron rod a of an inch thick, to go round this gunwale, bent to the form of the outline of fig. III., i b k c, which will now be that of the boat, and the ends welded at their meeting. Sufficient iron rod must be taken to form eyes at i and k to receive rings of 3 or 4 inches diameter, through which a pole is to be passed, for carrying the boat, and for their welding at the meeting of the ends.

`° The iron-rod gunwale may now be put in, and the 2 inches width of tin, allowed in excess on the sides and ends of the bottom, turned down closely over the rod, all round and soldered on the inside. The side elevation of the boat will now be as w x y, fig. IV.

" The boat should be proved as to being water-tight by filling it with water, any leak being stopped by more solder.

" The outside must now be covered with pitched canvas, thus:

" Turn it upside down, in a sheltered spot exposed to the sun, or warm it by other means, and have a caldron of boiling pitch on a fire at hand, also have sufficient canvas sewn together in breadths as will quite cover the boat, bottom and sides ; then, beginning across the middle of the bottom, brush on a layer 3 or 4 inches wide of the boiling pitch, and quickly press down the corresponding central portion of the canvas upon it; work on thus, from the centre of the bottom to the ends, laying on a breadth of pitch, and then pressing down and stretching a portion of canvas over it; then turn down the canvas over each side, and pitch in the same way, cutting out the parts of the canvas that would overlap too much at the bends, but leaving no tin uncovered ; the boat may then be righted, the excess of canvas Cut off, and the edge laid down with pitch, a little short of the gunwale.

" The bottom may then be pitched over the canvas for 6 inches up, and the rest of the outside, with the inside, be painted with two or three coats.

" A flooring of thin planking for 3l feet of the central portion of the boat must now be made as follows :-Make five planks, between 8 and 9 inches wide, to fit across the beam of