comfort. Each animal had an immense pad, well stuffed with goats' hair ; this rested from the shoulder to the hip bones ; upon this rested a simple form of saddle made of two forks of boughs inverted, and fastened together with rails; there were no nails in these saddles, all the fastenings being secured with thongs of raw hide. The great pad projecting before and behind, and also below the side of the saddle, prevented the loads from chafing the animal. Every donkey carried two large bags made from the hides of antelopes that I had formerly shot on the frontier of Abyssinia, and these were arranged with taggles on the one to fit into loops on the other, so that the loading and unloading was exceedingly simple. The success of an expedition depends mainly upon the perfection of the details, and, where animals are employed for transport, the first consideration should be bestowed upon saddle-packs. The facility of loading is all-important, and I now had an exemplification of its effect upon both animals and men ; the latter began to abuse the camels and to curse the father of this, and the mother of that, because they had the trouble of unloading them for the descent into the river's bed, while the donkeys were blessed with the endearing name of ' my brother,' and alternately whacked with the stick."
The art of packing.-The art of good packing is to balance the packs accurately, and to lash tightly to the saddle, so that they will never slip. The entire load is then secured to the animal's back, by moderate girthing. It is going on a false principle, to wind one long cord round the horse, saddle, and packs ; making, as it were, a great faggot of them.
To tighten the lashings of a pack, thrust a stick through them, twist it forcibly round and round, till the lashings are screwed tight enough, and then secure the stick.
Half-filled sacks require to have laths of wood, or a handful of twigs, put between them and the packing-cord, to equalise its pressure; otherwise, they are strangled out of shape and never lie firmly against the saddle.
Other Harness,- Cruppers.-A crupper rope should be passed through a leather tube, fitting it loosely. Cruppers for packsaddles, adapted to very mountainous countries, like those used in Norway, can readily be made by travellers. Instead