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56   Art of Travel.

horse-knowledge of the operator, than in the mere theory. His way of mastering a vicious horse is by taking up one forefoot, bending the knee, slipping a loop over the knee until it comes to the pastern-joint, and then fixing it tight. The loop must be caused to embrace the part between the hoof and the pastern joint firmly, by the help of a strap of some kind, lest it should slip. The horse is now on three legs, and he feels conquered. If he gets very mad, wait leisurely till he becomes quiet, then caress him, and let the leg down and allow him to rest ; then repeat the process. If the horse kicks in harness, drive him slowly on three legs.

In breaking-in a stubborn beast, it is convenient to physic him until he is sick and out of spirits, or to starve him into submission.

Salt keeps horses from straying, if they are accustomed to come up to the camp and get it. But it is a bad plan, as they are apt to hang about, instead of going off to feed. They are so fond of salt, that they have been known to stray back to a distant house where they had been allowed to lick it.

Shooting Horse.-Spur him as much as you will, but never use a whip ; else, whenever you raise your gun to fire, he will feel a dread that it may be the whip, and will be unsteady.

Horse neighing.-Mungo Park tells how he clutched his horse's muzzle with both hands to prevent his neighing, when he was in concealment and horsemen were passing near.

Addenda.-In climbing a steep hill hang on to the tail of your horse as you walk behind him. Horses are easily driven in file by securing the halter of each horse to the tail of the one before him. To swim horses across a river, to sleep by their side when there is danger, to tether them, and to water them from wells, are all described elsewhere. (See " Horses " in index.)

Mules.-Mules require men who know their habits ; they are powerful beasts, and can only be mastered with skill and address. A savage will not assist in packing them, for he fears their heels : the Swiss say mules have always an arrierepensee. They have odd secret ways, strange fancies, and lurking vice. When they stray, they go immense distances ;