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Cattle.   5 3

English mountaineers nor modern guides ever employ them nailed boots are better.

Snow Spectacles.-The Esquimaux, who have no coloured glass, or any equivalent for it, cut a piece of soft wood to the curvature of the face ; it is about two inches thick, and extends horizontally quite across both eyes, resting on the nose, a notch being cut in the wood to answer the purpose of the bridge of a pair of spectacles. It is tied behind the ears; and, so far as I have now described it would exclude every ray of light from the eyes. Next, a long narrow slit, of the thickness of a thin saw-cut, is made along its middle almost from end to end. Through this slit the wearer can see very fairly. As it is narrower than the diameter of the pupil of his eye, the light that reaches his retina is much diminished in quantity. Crape or gauze is a substitute for coloured glass.

Mask.-Is merely a pocket-handkerchief, with strings to tie it over the face; eye-holes are cut in it, also a hole for the nose, over which a protecting triangular piece of linen is thrown, and another hole opposite the mouth, to breathe through ; it is drawn below the chin so as to tie firmly in place. The mask prevents the face from being cut to pieces by the cold dry winds, and blistered by the powerful rays of the sun reverberated from the snow.


Happy is the traveller who has the opportunity of hiring his cattle with their attendants : for his delay and cares are then reduced to those of making a bargain, and of riding what he has hired ; and when one set of animals is tired or worn out, he can leave them behind and ride on with others. But, for the most part, explorers must drive their own beasts with them : they must see to their being watered, tended, and run after when astray; help to pack and harness them; fatigue themselves for their benefit ; and drudge at the work of a cowherd for some hours a day.

In fitting out a caravan, as few different kinds of animals should be taken as possible, or they will split into separate herds, and require many men to look after them.