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Climbing and Mountaineering.


we append diagrams of those knots which we found by experiment weaken the rope least. For Alpine ropes, only three sorts of knots are ever required, and we suggest one of each kind:-No. 1 is for the purpose of joining two ends. No. 2 is

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for the purpose of making a loop at one end. No. 3 is for the purpose of making a loop in the middle when the ends are fastened. No. 4 is a knot, of which we give a diagram in order that no one may imitate it. It is one of those which most weaken the rope. The only one which seemed to be equally injurious is the common single knot, of which no diagram is necessary. As the ropes which we have recommended are very liable to become untwisted, unless the loose ends are secured, we advise travellers, in order to avoid knots, to have the ends of every, piece of rope bound with waxed twine. It should also be known that it is very unsafe to join two pieces of rope by looping one end through the other, so that when the jerk comes, they will be strained across each other as two links of a chain are strained across each other. Unless a pad of some kind divides the loops, one will cut the other through.

Axes.-The axes made in England for the purpose of being taken out to Switzerland, may be divided into two classes, namely : travellers' axes, intended to be used for chipping a few occasional steps,-for enlarging and clearing out those imperfectly made, and for holding on to a snow-slope,-and guides' axes, which are the heavier implements required for making long staircases in hard blue ice. «e have had three models prepared, of which diagrams are appended; the first two represent the lighter axe, or what we have termed the travellers' axe ; and the third, the heavier instrument required for guides' work. Diagram No. 1 represents a light axe or pick, of a kind somewhat similar to that recommended by Mr. Stephen, in a paper published a short time ago in the ' Journal.' It has, in the first place, the great advantage of lightness and handiness, while its single blade, to some extent, combines the step-cutting qualities possessed by the two cutters of the ordinary double-headed axe, though the latter instrument is on the whole decidedly superior. The small hammer-head at the back is added in order to balance the pick, and in some degree to improve the hold when the axe-bead comes to be used as a crutch handle. This form, it should be understood, we recommend on account of-its lightness and of its convenient shape. Diagram No. 2 represents a travellers'