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Medicine.   17

Zambesi throws doubt on the power of quinine to keep off the type of fever that prevails upon that river.

Precautions in unhealthy Places.-There are certain precautions which should be borne in mind in unhealthy places, besides that which I have just mentioned of regularly taking small doses of quinine, such as never to encamp to the leeward of a marsh ; to sleep close in between large fires, with a handkerchief gathered round your face (natural instinct will teach this) ; to avoid starting too early in the morning ; and to. beware of unnecessary hunger, hardship, and exposure. It is a widely-corroborated fact that the banks of a river and adjacent plains are often less affected by malaria than the low hills that overlook them.

Diarrhoea.-With a bad diarrhoea, take nothing but broth, rice water, and it may be rice, in very small quantities at a meal, until you are quite restored. The least piece of bread or meat causes an immediate relapse.

Ophthalmia.-Sulphate of zinc is invaluable as an eyewash for ophthalmia is a scourge in parts of North and South Africa, in Australia, and in many other countries. The taste of the solution, which should be strongly astringent, is the best guide to its strength.

Tooth-ache.-Tough diet tries the teeth so severely, that a man about to undergo it, should pay a visit to a dentist before he leaves England. An unskilled traveller is very likely to make a bad job of a first attempt at tooth-drawing. By constantly pushing and pulling an aching tooth, it will in time loosen, and perhaps, after some weeks, come out.

Thirst.-Pour water over the clothes of the patient, and keep them constantly wet; restrain his drinking, after the first few minutes, as strictly as you can summon heart to do it. (See " Thirst" in the chapter on " Water.") In less severe cases, drink water with a tea-spoon; it will satisfy a parched palate as much as if you gulped it down in tumblerfuls, and will disorder the digestion very considerably less.

Hunger.-Give two or three mouthfuls, every quarter of an hour, to a man reduced to the last extremity by hunger ; strong broth is the best food for him.