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It is impossible to include lists of outfit, in any reasonable space, that shall suit the various requirements of men engaged in expeditions of different magnitudes, who adopt different modes of locomotion, and who visit different countries and climates. I have therefore thought it best to describe only one outfit as a specimen, selecting for my example the desiderata for South Africa. In that country the traveller has, or had a few years ago, to take everything with him, for there were no civilised settlers, and the natural products of the country are of as little value in supplying his wants as those of any country can be. Again, South African wants are typical of those likely to be felt in every part of a large proportion of the region where rude travel is likely to be experienced, as in North Africa, in Australia, in Southern Siberia, and even in the prairies and pampas of North and South America. To make such an expedition effective all the articles included in the following lists may be considered as essential ; I trust, on the other hand, that no article of real importance is omitted.

Stores for general use.-These are to a great degree independent of the duration of the journey.

Small Stores, various:-   lbs.

One or two very small soft-steel axes; a small file to sharpen them; a few additional tools (see chapter on Timber); spare butcher's knives ..

A dozen awls for wood and for leather, two of them in handles ; two gimlets; a dozen sail-needles; three palms; a ball of sewing-twine; bit of beeswax; sewing-needles, assorted; a ball of black and white thread; buttons; two tailors' thimbles (see chapter on Cord, String,

and Thread)   3

Two penknives ; small metal saw ; bit of Turkey hone ; large scissors ; corkscrew    l~

Spring balances, from J lb. to 5 lbs. and from 1 lb, to 50 lbs. (or else a

hand steelyard)    1I


Fish-hooks of many sorts ; cobbler's wax ; black silk ; gut ; two or more

fishing-lines and floats ; a large ball of line ; thin brass wire, for springes

(see chapters on Fishing and Trapping)   2

Ball of wicks, for lamps; candle-mould (see chapter on Candles); a few

corks; lump of sulphur; amadou (see chapter on Fire)    1+

Medicines (see chapter on Medicine) ; a scalpel ; a blunt-pointed bistoury ;

and good forceps for thorns   1

A small iron, and an ironing-flannel; clothes-brush; bottle of Benzine

or other scouring drops ..   3

Carried forward   ..   ..   211