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Characterisation, especially by Letters   621

(a) How does a better workman obtain better wages and to what extent? (1) By becoming a foreman or a higher grade workman ; (2) By change of occupation;

(3) By off-Work;

(b) Distribution of wages among the most successful 5 per cent.

On the reasonable supposition that the distribution of civic worth follows the Gaussian law, the value of the deviate corresponding to an L-select can be found from my small table on p. * or thp larger one by Sheppard in Biometrika, IV. Then by the formula of Heredity as thus far determined, the mean deviates of the offspring of deviates, which we will call , can be found and its class place n from the above tables. This does not give the mean value of the offspring of L and all above L parents, but considering that fertility decreases as the severity of selection increases, and that we are as yet ignorant.of the rate of decrease; also bearing in mind that an inferior limit of possible values of L is almost as serviceable in the argument as its exact value, it will suffice to say that the mean deviate of the offspring of L-selects and of all higher than L-selects exceeds n, and that their average value v is determinable. In short, it would be good economy to purchase infants whose cost of maintenance etc. capitalised to present value did not exceed v. Some purchases would turn out ill, others good, but taking them all round as in any large business, the rule would be founded on a statistical certainty. This general idea requires elaboration and a criticism by experts of the results reached.

Worth estimated either by Class Place or by Scale Value and their
mutual Convertibility.

Ministers of State, Heads of Departments, Bishops, Judges, Commanders and Admirals in Chief, Governors of Colonies and other appointments. Foreign Ambassadors, Ministers and other diplomats.

Choice out of many applicants as Secretary, Clerk, superior. servant.

Choice of candidates for M.P., Guardians and other municipal officers.

Choice of a Doctor, a Lawyer, an Agent, a School, a Governess, a Shop, a tour, a means

of conveyance.

Selection of a Profession, a House, Investments, a Dress shape or colour, a book or any other purchase, an Hotel, food, wine, a dog, a pianoforte, a cigar, a horse.

Classification by marks at school or college examinations, and competitions for Government services.

Sorting fruit into classes differently priced.

Appraisement in money value of pictures, curios, horses, actors and actresses. Pondering before choosing (Scotchmen)..

Arrays-Class place and scale I value } , their convertibility into centile values, always degree

feasible-Judgment by intercomparison.

Place in Scale of Distribution.
Position in scale 0° to 1000 up to array.



Deviations in

units of q

Places of A in Class Scale


Mean Filial

Deviations = I A

in units of q

Places of B in Class Scale



Separates from lower part


Separates from lower part


of class the upper


of class the upper


2 =the upper 50th part


9 =the upper 11th part


5 =   „   20 „


13=   „   7 19


9=   „   11 „


18=   „   52 „


16=   „   6 „


25 =   „   4 „


25=   „   4 „


33=   „   3 „

* Galton is, I think, referring to Table 6 on p. 203 of his Natural Inheritance.

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