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Characterisation, especially by Letters   611

nium to allay them, as I do. Our few peaches have just come to an end, but hope remains that six nectarines, still on their tree, will consent to ripen. We had an orange-coloured turnip for lunch to-day. I had never seen one before. It tasted just like a white one.

How is Bob getting on in Wall Street? Does he dream of millions? Geoffrey Butler is expected back this week from America with plenty to tell. His host took every care of him and lie saw many people    I weary myself with devising a workable constitution for Kantsawa. After writing ever so much I find over and over again that some arrangement won't work rightly and everything has to be altered. I live quite as much in Kantsawa as I do in Haslemere. I go there continually, as on a villeggiatura by a suburban train. But I find it changed at every successive visit, and demolished quarters have to be replanned and rebuilt. It is very cheap to build castles in the air. With all loves. Ever affectionately, FRANCIS GALTON.


MY DEAR LEONARD DARWIN, I can't help in solving your question. The answer must greatly depend on where the people live and how. In many villages, notably Scotch sea-shore ones, the fisherfolk never marry outside their immediate neighbourhood. In such an extreme case the number of their forefathers, any number of generations back, would hardly exceed that of the present villagers. On the other hand, a migratory population might have greatly intermarried with outsiders.

PROBLEM. Noah and his wife have an increasing number of descendants during n generations ; find the r1h generation in which the number of ancestors is largest. (Assume the problem in its utmost simplicity of every 100 persons becoming 100 + a in the next generation)-the figure is something of this sort. I worked it out once, " but forget the result, except that r was not n/2.   : -

We are settled in the Hindhead district for the winter, in the above house till   _
Nov. 15, and then in another close by. I pull on-sometimes rather badly, often rather
well, but very infirm always, and am wheeled about and carried up and down stairs. But I have
nothing to complain of. I sleep like Morpheus and enjoy a chastened dietary, and have had my


I hear, from time to time, personal and scientific news from men like Sir A. Geikie, who lives within a distant reach and there are many nice people about. My niece takes excellent care of me. The village is not far off where the following occurred-told me by the Vicar's soil:

Vicar. "Why, Mary, is the old woman dead at last? she seemed to me fairly well yesterday."

Jfary. "Yes, sir. Her cough had been bad and noisy at nights for long, and Jim said to me last night, 'I can't abide that cough; get up, Mary, and put the pillow on your Mother!' So I got up and put the pillow on her, and she was that weak, her spirit flew away like a bird."

Bhan (Haschisch)-in cigarettes is, I find, a great solace in fits of bad asthma and cough.

How good the photographs are in the Royal Geographical Journal. You will be hard at work soon with those stirring people. Remember Ine please most kindly to your wife and two brothers now with you. Ever sincerely yours, FRANCIS GALTON.


MY DEAR MILLY, Dim left us this morning perfectly well. I wish she could have stayed longer. I had a "private" note last week from the President of the Royal Society to say that the Council had awarded me the Copley Medal, but that it was not to be publicly announced yet; it is, however, in the newspapers to-day! It is the "blue ribbon" of the scientific world, and I am of course deeply gratified. One is awarded annually, without distinction of nationality or of tinge when the scientific work was done, whether lately or some years back. As a fact, an Englishman gets the Medal not quite so often as once in two years. About five other living Englishmen have it. People are always very kind to me, but I wish my Father and Emma were alive. It would have given them real pleasure. We move to the new house in a month's time. Eva is off for the day to her old friend the blind Mrs A'Court.

Ever affectionately, FRANCIS GALTON. What a nuisance about your motor! What a shameful blot!!


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