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Characterisation, especially by Letters   543

about Gavr'inis and have photographs of the big stones-casts of them are in the Museum of St Germain. They are cut apparently as conventional renderings of the marks made by a bloody thumb or finger on a flat surface. They are certainly not exact copies of any real finger mark, being far too regular, but their patterns seem clearly to be based on the general appearance of one or more. The museum authorities allowed me to have the photos to examine. My resemblance problem hangs fire, for the makeshift apparatus I have been using proves inadequate, and I must get some (of which I possess the essential parts in London) properly fitted together. There are many alternative ways of carrying out the same principle and I am somewhat bewildered which finally to adopt. The subject too has many ramifications and I ought to show many illustrations. So the whole thing must wait awhile and mature. The greenery with you in England seems little short of what it is with us. There are however not many deciduous trees here to judge by. One horse-chestnut is in bloom, but the mass of the verdure is olive, palm and orange. What a sight a flourishing orange garden is! One understands their ancient name of golden apples. How pleased you will all be with your holiday trip. Best love to you all in which of course Eva would heartily join. Miss Cuenod asks after you. Do you recollect her at Vevey? Ever affectionately, FRANCIS GALTON.

Letter of Erasmus Galton to his brother Francis.


My DEAR FRANK, I am so very glad to hear you are now quite well and on your way home. Yesterday was bitterly cold, but this morning we have sunshine and all appearance of summer coming on. Your idea about fruit trees is excellent in theory but not in practice. Fruit, to be first class, must have sunshine and room. Fruit trees planted as you saw them at Loxton have plenty of it, and have two wide avenues and two narrow ones, so that carts, bush harrows, and mowing machines may pass between the trees, in fact everything can be done by horse cultivation in place of manual labour. For instance, hay is cut, made, stacked and finished entirely by machines. Turnips are cultivated in rows of from 28 to 32 inches apart, cabbages still wider to allow horse hoes to work between, one horse and one horse hoe easily doing the work of twelve men. The Royal Agricultural Society's Journal of this quarter gives a long account of fruit farming, which I think you should read before sending in your paper, which paper I enclose in this letter for your re-consideration. I would advise sending it to the Royal Agricultural Society Journal or to the -Field, to which papers I have sent a few articles which they accepted.   Ever very affectionately yours, ERAS. GALTON.

P.S. Bessy has been so good as to tell me every fortnight about you.

42, RUTLAND GATE, S.W. May 13, 1905.

DEAREST MILLY, My letter is belated, for you have no Sunday delivery, but there is nothing to say. Eva and I go to Claverdon on Monday, for four days or so. We are nearly square again at home. There is now a mahogany rail put into my house, from the ground floor up to the second floor, up which I pull myself like an orang outang, and find it very handy in descending also. You will be very glad to be off and enjoy spring and change in Brittany. I feel now as though the past winter were a half-forgotten dream. The first letters almost that I opened on returning, were to say that the Council of the British Association had nominated me as President next year at York. They were very kind, assuring me that I need not attend Committees on account of my deafness, and might absent myself much, leaving the duties to a Vice-President, but I dared not risk it. The social duties are what chiefly knock me up. I think I could get through the Address, but even that, with my uncertain throaty would be a doubt. So I refused at once. Something of the same kind occurred to me before, and not only once, but I am conscious of many limitations to my strength, and then, as now, declined. It is a bore to renounce the opportunity of having so good a pulpit to set forth one's fads; it is in fact a unique opportunity for addressing all men of science and the public as well. George Darwin will have a very fatiguing time in S. Africa. He has to give two addresses, one at Cape Town and one at Johannesburg, and the travelling will be very long. It is a great way, and by slow trains, to the Victoria Falls. I fancy more than 48 hours each way, and there is ever so much more to be done. The Diplodocus (big beast 90 feet long, when measured along the undulations

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