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Characterisation, especially by Letters   491

42, RUTLAND GATE, S.W. June 1, 1892.

DEAR MR COLLINS, Bravo thus far. Your figures tally well and conviction is at a measurable distance. Still a total of 44 families is not large. The figures show that the ratio of paternal to maternal influence is as 7 or 8 to 10. Now if 44 families are divided in that ratio they would split into 18 and 26 (18 x 10 = 180; 27 x 7 189). What your figures really show is that 18 of the families have preponderating paternal influence and 26 have preponderating maternal. If the influences were really equal, the chance against the figures coming out as yours do, would be as that of tossing 44 pence and only 18 of them coming down heads instead of 22. This is not highly improbable by any means. I don't see that the number of children mends matters. They tell the variation in the degree of preponderance of one parent or the other in the various families, but that is all. It strikes me as hazardous in exactly the above proportion to publish the results. You say, I have tossed up 44 pence, 18 only have come down heads, therefore those pence were weighted, like false dice. The judge would say-the evidence is strong but not cogent enough to convict. I should certainly advise your working hard to get more cases, the inquiry being very hopeful ; and when you have enough, it might be well to try the effect of eliminating loops, because they seem to be less hereditary than arches or whorls, so their inclusion may dilute the results. So glad that you are safe back, well refreshed. All is well with us.

Very faithfully yours, FRANCIS GALTON.

42, RUTLAND GATE, S.W. June 3, 1892.

DEAR MR COLLINS, By all means, in respect to Miss H. I should be delighted to give her £5 towards a holiday with a roving commission for families and Quakers. For my own part, I doubt the Quakers worth inquiry in the face of the fact that racial differences are so minute. Moreover on going carefully into Race, I feel sure that nothing can be substantiated without dealing with large numbers. The Jews are all right being upwards of 1000, but 50 is inadequate, as shown by the non-conformity of 50 groups with the larger ones. I should certainly say " concentrate upon families" never minding their origin, but settle (1) the comparative paternal and maternal influence, (2) the parento-filial, (3) the fraternal. I think (3) is already good enough to justify publication, but it would be improved by more. cases. As Quakers drop in you might if disposed work them up apart, as a luxury rather than a necessity. I would write to Miss H.: and enclose the cheque, but it would be nicer through your hands. When you have fixed with her, please tell me what I otherwise owe. Very faithfully yours, FRANCIS GALTON.

42, RUTLAND GATE, S.W. June 5, 1892.

MY DEAR MR COLLINS, Miss H, has written to me enjoying the prospect of her holiday and asking for the papers of lists of relatives, which I have returned to her. I said that I had sent the cheque to you, which I do herewith. There were two reasons for not sending it to her, one was that you might have already given her the money and the other is that quaere would it not be better to give her more tether, another two or three pounds will do for twice as many extra days. So I send the cheque unfilled but with "not exceeding £10" written on it for you to fill up. (Besides I am in your debt for much else which this will not and is not intended to cover.) Might it not be well that I should anyhow pay her as usual for the families she gets, in addition to her holiday fund. It would prompt her to work all the harder. You will understand better than I do what is right and reasonable, without fear of spoiling her.

I am going through the chapters you corrected at Ryde. Your criticisms are most just and the corrections most welcome. I am sincerely obliged for them. This Whitsuntide breaks into postal arrangements so I don't know when you will get this.

Very faithfully yours, FRANCIS GALTON.

September 20, 1892.

DEAR COLLINS, I welcome the briefer and more cordial mode of address. Your paper reached Callander yesterday in time for getting everything done before post time ; the contents being re-written in the train and posted en route. I shall get proofs of these, of Index, etc., here, and then that too will be closed.

We stay here (Alnwick) for three days-then go to Lincolnshire for three or so more, and thence to Leamington, 5, Bertie Terrace, on this day week, or the next day to that. I hope it will be fine and may tempt you to come as you have proposed after all.


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