222 Life and Letters of Francis Galton
contains his own first definition of Eugenics, and whereas in the Inquiry we find the term may be applied to animals as well as man, it is now implicitly limited to mankind:
UNIVERSITY OF LONDON. October 10, 1904*.
DEAR SIR ARTHUR, I desire to forward the exact study of what may be called National Eugenics, by which I mean the influences that are socially controllable, on which the status of the nation depends. These are of two classes: (1) those which affect the race itself and (2) those which affect its health. It is the numerous influences comprised in (1), whose several strengths are as yet only vaguely surmised, that I especially want to have submitted to exact study. Class (2) is already the subject of much research, but I fear that here also the results arrived at require much more exact analysis by the higher methods of statistics than they have yet received.
If a scheme can be worked out that, on the one hand, .fits in with the arrangements of the University of London and, on the other hand, is satisfactory to myself,-I am prepared as a first instalment to give £1500 to serve for three years to carry out my purposes. If, but only if, the working of the proposed plan proves as satisfactory as I hope, I will reconsider the question with the view of making the endowment permanent of about £500 a year.
I presume that the University will supply accommodation for the person appointed at, say, £200 to £250 a year, and for a clerk, say, at £80 to £100 a year, leaving £150 to £200 for expenses. Also that the stamped official writing paper of the University may be used.
One part of his [the Fellow's] duties would be to establish a collection of records relating to those families of England who are remarkable for the number of near kinsfolk whose deeds have been noteworthy.
I feel some hesitation in drafting a statement of proposed duties for the "Research Fellow," or whatever his title may be, as they ought to fit into, and not overlap, what is already well done. Be that what it may, I think that "National Eugenics" would be good, as it is an exact title for what I wish to see done. Yours very faithfully, FRANCIS GALTON.
This letter is important with regard to the definition of Eugenics, as it clearly indicates when and why the term " National " was introduced. The University appointed a committee to consider the offer and draft a scheme for the Research Fellowship in National Eugenics. It consisted of Sir Edward Busk (Chairman of Convocation), Francis Galton, the Principal of the University, Mr Mackinder and myself. This committee met on Oct. 14th and drew up a scheme for the Fellowship. My recollection of the meeting is that most of the time was spent in drafting a definition, which ultimately differed somewhat widely from that of Galton's letter of Oct. 10th, but which he finally approved. It heads the Draft Scheme and runs
"The term National Eugenics is here defined as the study of the agencies under social control that may improve or impair the racial qualities of future generations either physically or mentally."
The scheme itself contains the usual regulations as to manner of appointment, the constitution of a special recommending Committee, Galton reserving a right of veto on the first nomination, the salary of the Fellow and his assistant, who if suitable was to be termed the Francis Galton Scholar. The duties of the Fellow are of more permanent interest: he was to devote all his time to Eugenics, in particular he was required
"(a) To acquaint himself with statistical methods of inquiry, and with the principal researches that have been made in Eugenics, and to plan and carry out further investigations thereon.
• I do not' know whether this is a clerk's error in printing Galton's letter or whether he actually wrote it in the precincts of the University.