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Personal Identification and Description   209

It should be noted that the order of the numerals in the power is indifferent. We may now turn to the subspecies of the main species indicated by different letters of their special alphabets.

Arches:

a = simple arch ; 8 = tented arch ; y = arch with a central dot or very small circle;

K = arch approaching radial loop

A = arch approaching ulnar loop ;

,u = arch which might equally well be classed as a radial loop; v =arch which might equally well be classed as an ulnar loop ; r =arch approaching a radial whorl;

p =arch approaching an ulnar whorl;

Gr =arch which might equally well be classed as a radial whorl ;

T = arch which might equally well be classed as an ulnar whorl ;

=tented arch which might be confused with a loop fed from both sides.

It will be seen that K, A are nascent loops, 7r, p nascent whorls, and µ, v, o-, T quite ambiguous forms, which it may be needful to look out under other headings when searching the index.

Loops

a = radial loop ; b = ulnar loop ; c = loop fed from both sides ;

d =loop which cannot be clearly classed under a, b or c ; e = double adjacent loops ; f = double superimposed loops ; g =loop resembling a tented arch ;

h =loop which somewhat exceeds the limit at which it could be classed as

an arch (or nascent loop);

k =radial loop which has some likeness to an arch ;

1 = ulnar loop which has some likeness to an arch ;

m = radial loop which might equally well be classed as an arch; n = ulnar loop which might equally well be classed as an arch; u =radial loop which has some likeness to a whorl ; v = ulnar loop which has some likeness to a whorl ;

x =radial loop which might equally well be classed as a whorl ; y = ulnar loop which might equally well be classed as a whorl ;

z =loop fed from both sides which might be classed as a tented arch.

As before it will be seen that m, n and z are ambiguous cases interchangeable with µ, v and ~; k and l ought not to be, but may sometimes be confused with K and A.

Whorls:

Thus far our symbolism has only been an attempt to abbreviate Galton's. In the case of whorls we think it desirable to introduce certain additional broad classes, besides Galton's radial (r), ulnar (u) and fed from both sides (s). In the first place we distinguish between a simple spiral and a compound spiral with several whorling ridges linked at the pole. In the next place we

P Gi III   27