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198   Life and Letters of Francis Galton

(ii) 150 to 156, (iii) 129 to 136, (iv) 450 to 464, (v) 113 to 116, all inclusive. The danger of the Inthropometric formula will arise when we have one or more measurements in the neighbourhood of these limits. Galton uses the five-symbol classification for his finger-print formula, namely A = arch, L = loop, W = whorl, U and R being used for ulnar and radial loops on forefingers only. He adopts the numerical abbreviations of his later work, i.e.


1= as or A,4,


= al or AL,

3 = aw or A W,

4 = la or LA,


=11 or LL,

6=1w or L W,

7 = wa or WA,


= wl or WL,

9 = ww or WW.

The third line is the secondary classification of the finger-prints, but he takes only the following six fingers in the order : fore, middle and ring fingers of the right hand, and then fore, middle and ring fingers of the left hand. In the secondary classification the symbols Galton uses are those of his Finger Print Directories with two additions, i.e. b =partially burnt by fire or chemicals, or so spoilt by work as to leave granulations in place of ridges, and m = the pattern is minute; so small that two specimens of the characteristic portion would occupy less space than that covered by a single dabbed print. As there is no secondary classification for thumb or little finger, the description is not so full as in the later work. Ridges are counted in the same manner as we describe on pp. 201-2; and are given for the forefingers when they are loops, and for the middle finger when it is needful to distinguish between individuals having the same primary classifications. The fourth line gives the initials of the subject, the year of birth, the year of measurement, and the registered number of the subject, so that his finger-prints may be found. The following individual cases will illustrate the compactness of the arrangement and explain its interpretation




A6 R5, 88



U5 R5, 55



W6 W6, 88





454 111



151 137

486 121



148 140


446 111





- k -



- 11

2a - y



- 11


wv -

G. K. 1862-94


C. J. E. 1870-94   6547

G. A. 1839-94



They are taken from the finger-print index. 58a = llwla; thus G. K., whose finger-prints were registered as No. 6590 and who was born in 1862 and measured when he was 32 years old, was in the medium classes for length and breadth of head and for left cubit ; he was wide in bizygomatic or cheek bone width and had a short left middle finger; the second line gives his actual measurements. His finger-print formula was AL W, RLL, WL, WL. Both his thumbs were whorls, and his little fingers loops; no further information is given. His right forefinger was an arch, there being a needle or racquetshaped ridge therein ; his right middle finger was a loop invaded by a blunt system of ridges; his right ring finger was a whorl with a racquet-shaped core. On the left hand the forefinger was a radial loop, and the ring finger a nonradial loop, the middle finger was a non-radial loop with the inner part of the

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