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Statistical Investigations   371

"Their value is indisputable, the cost of making them is trifling, and the facility of registration in any permanent institution is obvious. It seems strange that they should be neglected at any school or university." (p. 4.)

Dealing with the question of hair and eye colour, Galton remarks that

"The British nation is partly a blend and partly a mosaic of very distinct types. The short black-haired ancient British race unites imperfectly with the tall fair-haired Danish or Scandinavian. Their union resembles what druggists call an emulsion, that is a mixture of oil and water, so well shaken together that they form an apparently homogeneous substance; but the compound is not durable. Leave the emulsion alone and after a longer or shorter time it will separate into its component elements. Types are stable, but the forms of their mongrel

offspring are not; and whenever the external features of the old types are found in something of their original purity, it is reasonable to suppose that their inward characteristics are present also." (p. 51.)

Galton notes that Baxter has shown fiom an analysis of 330,000 to 340,000 reported cases of invalidism in the medical examinations for the American army during the Civil War, that the light-haired men suffered more than the dark-haired from every form of disease except chronic rheumatism'. It is to solve problems of this kind that a record of pigmentation in individuals and families as well as a record of disease is desirable.

The actual floor space of the Laboratory was only 6 feet wide by 36 feet long. It was fenced off from the side of a gallery by open lattice-work, through which the public could see what was going on without impeding the examinees. These entered by a door at one end and left by a door at the other; and some 90 individuals were passed through in the course of a day. The pamphlet gives an account of what the visitor is expected to do at each station and the nature of the instrument used for the test. A more elaborate account of the Laboratory was published in the Journal of the Anthropological Institute for 18853. It is entitled: "On the Anthropometric Laboratory at the late International Health Exhibition." The memoir begins by stating that the exhibition being over it is desirable that some account should be given of the methods and experiences of the Anthropometric Laboratory, and that the author wishes to invite criticism and suggestion. He states that the Laboratory aroused considerable interest, 9337 persons were measured, each in 17 different ways4. Duplicates of the instruments had been ordered by executive officers in foreign countries, and much interest had been expressed in the apparatus by many places_ of education. As it was most desirable that for comparative purposes there should be a standard set of instruments Galton brought his apparatus and the attendants who had supervised the measuring before the Institutes. Galton remarks that the total expenditure having been covered by a charge of 3d. per head, he

1 More recent research indicates little association between external and psychical characters after hybridisation.

' Baxter, J. H. Medical and Anthropojogical Statistics of the Provost-Marshal-General's Bureau, Washington, 1875.

' Vol. xiv, pp. 205-21.

4 The schedules containing these measurements are now in the Galton Laboratory and work on their complete reduction is in progress.

s All the work was done by Serjeant Williams, Mr Gammage, an optical instrument maker, and a doorkeeper, of course under Galton's supervision.