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370   Life and Letters of Francis Galton

The Record of Family Faculties and the offer of prizes supplied Galton with the material upon which to work for the next five years, and the resulting memoirs and his book Natural Inheritance of 1889 will be discussed in a later chapter. When Galton came to distributing the prize money he had offered, he was in some difficulty as to measuring relative values and finally assigned forty £7 and forty-five £5 prizes, so that eighty-five competitors shared the £505. The awards were made on June 24, 1884, and were published in the Times, Nature, British Medical Journal and Guardian. Of the returns it is of interest to note that 70 were made by men, 80 by women; (i) 20, or rather fewer, concerned titled persons and the landed gentry; from (ii) Army and Navy, (iii) Church (various denominations), (iv) Law, (v) Medicine, (vi) Commerce (higher), (vii) Commerce (lower) there were 110 returns in all. The remaining twenty were from land agents, farmers, artisans, literary men, schoolmasters, clerks, students, and one domestic servant-a fairly representative collection. The original records were returned by Galton to their authors after he had made statistical abstracts.


We have already indicated the labour Galton gave to the construction of instruments for this laboratory and described some of the psychometric and other measurements he took. We have further discussed the paper on the "Outfit for an Anthropometric Laboratory" which he drew up in conjunction with the late Professor Croom-Robertson and privately circulated (see our p. 212). Other papers actually deal with the instruments and measurements made at the first Anthropometric Laboratory (International Health Exhibition). The first is a penny pamphlet of some fourteen pages, "Issued by Authority," and intended to be sold to visitors to the Exhibition. It is entitled "Anthropometric Laboratory arranged by Francis Galton, F.R.S., for the Determination of Height, Weight, Span, Breathing Power, Strength of Pull and Squeeze, Quickness of Blow, Hearing, Seeing, Colour Sense, and other Personal Data. The Laboratory is situated in the East Corridor Annexe, Entrance from South Gallery. Admission to the Laboratory 3d., for which a schedule filled up with the above details will be furnished. London, William Clowes and Sons. International Health Exhibition, 1884." The pamphlet describes the purpose of the Laboratory, namely to show to the public the great simplicity of the instruments and methods by which anthropometric measurements are taken. It then states what measurements are taken and how they are taken. It further indicates two uses of such measurements, namely (i) the personal use, to ascertain whether the growth of child or youth is proceeding normally, and to draw attention to defects with a view to their being remedied; and (ii) the statistical use, to discover the efficiency of a nation as a whole and of its several parts, and the direction in which it is changing, whether for better or worse. Galton then notes the need there is for a more systematic registration of physical measurements.