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352   Life and Letters of Francis Galton

refrained from circulating his questionnaire, as so many of the recipients might reasonably associate "mental overstrain" and "mental breakdown" with a form of mental illness they would be unwilling to admit having suffered from. As we have seen', Galton took up the topic again in 1888, endeavouring to obtain the requisite data from school teachers.

The next circular I pick up is entitled : Ethnological Inquiries on the Innate Character and Intelligence of Different Races. By Francis Galton. The object of these inquiries is clear, they were intended to obtain statistical data upon which a judgment might be made as to how far racial character or training influences the mental characters. The "subjects" dealt with are to be those "who have been reared since childhood in European or American schools, families, asylums or missionary establishments. By this restriction, it is hoped to eliminate all peculiarities that are due to the abiding influence of early education, and to the manners and customs of their own people." The standard to be kept in mind in answering these questions is the average Anglo-Saxon character; paying strict regard to the influence of sex, age, education and social position. Where there is no decided divergence from this standard, it will be best to reply-'ordinary.'

The Galtoniana contain no replies to this circular; I do not know whether it was ever issued in mass, nor have I anywhere seen a reference to it, nor to data obtained by its circulation. The origin of it may be connected with the idea conveyed by Galton's treatment of unlike twins under like environment (see our p. 126 et seq.). As we might suppose the questions are well chosen, and bear closely on Galton's own experience with uncivilised races. As the questionnaire would be distinctly helpful to anyone embarking on an inquiry of like kind-and one might be well worth pushing with more vigour than Galton seems to have given to the matter-I reproduce the questionnaire here

1. Signature, title and full address of the sender of the information.

2. Name or initials, sex and age of individual whose character is described.

3. His (or her) country and race. State specifically if his race is known to be pure, if not

describe the admixture.

4. Age at which he was removed from his parents and people, also particulars showing the extent to which he has since been separated from their influence.

5. What language, or languages, does he commonly speak I Does he retain the use of his native tongue 1

6. State any circumstances that may or may not justify his being considered a good typical specimen-of his race.

7. Is he capable of steady and sustained hard labour; or, is he restless and irregular in his habits?

8. Is he capable of filling responsible situations I Does he show coolness of temper when in difficulty 4 (It is said that Hindoos are incapable of steering large ships, that is, of acting as quartermasters ; while in British vessels that duty is commonly performed by native Christians of the Philippines.)

9. Is he docile or obstinate I

10. Children of many races are fully as quick, and even more precocious than European children, but they mostly cease to make progress after the season of manhood. Their moral character changes for the worse at the same time. State if this has been observed in the present instance.

' Cf. our p. 276.