Correspondence with Alphonse de Candolle 153
great social machine in steady work. The surplus is considerable, and may be disposed of in various ways. Let us now put ourselves in the position of advocates of science solely, and consider from that point of view how the surplus capabilities of the nation might be diverted to its furtherance. How can the tastes of men be most powerfully acted upon, to affect them towards science?
The large category of innate tastes is practically beyond our immediate influence, but though we cannot increase the national store, we need not waste it, as we do now. Every instance in which a man having an aptitude to succeed in sciences tempted by circumstances which might be controlled to occupy himself with subjects of less national value is a public calamity. Aptitudes and tastes for occupations which enrich the thoughts and productive powers of man are as much articles of national wealth as coal and iron, and their waste is as reprehensible. Educational monopolies, which offer numerous and great prizes for work of other descriptions, have caused enormous waste of scientific ability, by inducing those who might have succeeded in science to spend their energies with small effect on uncongenial occupations. When a pursuit is instinctive and the will is untaxed, an immense amount of work may be accomplished with ease." (pp. 222-3.)
"It is clear to all who have knowledge of the scope of modern science, that there exists an immense deal of national work which has to be performed, and which none but men of scientific culture are qualified to undertake. Scientific superintendence is required for all kinds of technical education, for statistical investigations of innumerable kinds, and deductions from them; for sanitary administration in the broadest sense; for agriculture, mining, industrial occupations, war, engineering. There is everywhere a demand for scientific assessors, who shall discover how to economise effort and find out new processes and fruitful principles. Professional duties generally ought to be more closely bound up with strictly scientific work than they are at present; and this requirement would tend to foster scientific tastes in minds which had little inborn tendency that way." (pp. 224-5.)
The reader, who remembers that this was written about 1873, before the foundation of most of our technical schools and engineering laboratories, and academic agricultural schools-to say nothing of the public health service-will grasp Galton's foresight. `War' and `statistical investigations of innumerable kinds'-both illustrations of the important future tasks of science-were chosen with surpassing aptness in 1873!
"It seems to me that the interpretation to be put on the replies we have now been considering, is that a love of science might be largely extended by fostering, not thwarting, innate tendencies, by the extension of scientific professional appointments and professorships, by assimilating in some cases the English system of teaching to that of the Scotch, and by creating travelling and other fellowships which shall enable their holders to view nature in various aspects, and to work with foreigners, whose habits of thought are fruitful in themselves but of a different kind to our own." (pp. 225-6.)
Among such fellowships Galton then demands the establishment of medical research fellowships.
"I appeal to capitalists, who know not what use, free from abuse, to make of their surplus wealth, to consider this want. They might greatly improve the practical skill of the English medical profession by affording opportunities of prolonged study. They might perhaps themselves reap some part of the benefit of it. A young medical man has now to waste the most vigorous years of his life in miserable routine work simply to obtain bread, until he has been able to establish his reputation. He has no breathing-time allowed him; the cares of mature life press too closely upon his student days to give him the opportunities of prolonged study that are necessary to accomplish him for his future profession." (pp. 226-7.)
How long after 1874 was the seed of that idea to lie buried, before the