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134   Life and Letters of Francis Galton -

and she may put you to confusion by distinguishing between the social and honourable duty of parentage, and the individualistic and onerous duties of marriage'. We may much desire, I fear now in vain, to see Galton's replies to these letters ; but I do not think he saw how the emancipation of women must change-. the aspect of his proposals for race-betterment'. Had he done so, he must surely have given us some light on one of the most difficult problems of our present day civilisation. I cannot find trace of it in Galton's later. writings on eugenics, and the present legislative pittance -to lying-in mothers of the artizan classes is only a travesty of what the eugenist understands by the endowment of the physically and psychically abler mothers in each caste of our modern highly differentiated social organisation.

We have further evidence, however, of the manner in which Hereditary Genius stirred up men by its suggestions, if not to new investigations, at any-rate to the publication of work they had in mind. Noteworthy in, this respect is Alphonse de Candolle's book Histoire des Sciences et des Savants depuis deux Siecles, published in 1872.. It shows undoubted signs of Galton's influence, if only as an irritant, and one may reasonably question how and when it would have been issued,- but for the Hereditary Genius of 1869. De Candolle, son of the still more distinguished botanist, was, as befits a botanist, more impressed than Galton with the influence of environment, and he quite-• possibly gave too little weight to the selective immigration into Switzerland, which has gone on at various periods to the great advantage of the intellectual life of that little country. Certainly some of his criticisms of'Galton appear to me hasty and unjustified, and counter-criticisms against his own, work could be easily raised, were it worth doing. The main, point is -that after a certain amount of friction these two able men became friends and mutually inspired each other's ideas and work. Just as we may consider De Candolle's work as brought to birth-perhaps prematurely-by Galton's Hereditary Genius, so Galton's English Men of Science, their Nature and Nurture of 1874, while an extension of the corresponding chapter in the Hereditary Genius, was prompted by De Candolle's Histoire des Sciences 2.'

The' correspondence between these two men gives a greater insight into Galton's manner of thought at this period than any other record-except his writings-which has been preserved from that date. Communications with English scientific friends-Darwin excepted-were largely verbal. They are lost in the after-dinner talks of the Athenaeum and of the Royal Society clubs.

1 I4e was not opposed to the academic education of women-witness the following letter of Charles Darwin to his son George of Feb. 27 [1881]:

"You will have heard of the triumph of the Ladies at Cam-bridge [Grace of Senate admitting women to University examinations carried by 398 to 32]. The majority was so enormous that many men on both sides did not think it worth voting. The minority, was received with jeers. Horace was sent . to the Ladies College to communicate the success and was received with enthusiasm. Frank and F. Galton went up to rote. We had F. Galton to Down last Sunday.

He-was splendid fun and told us no end of odd things." A -Century of Family Letters, 1904, Vol. II, p. 315.

But Galton naturally did not realise all that would flow from the movement.

2- '-'I thought that. a somewhat similar investigation night be made with advantage into the history of English men of science." Memories, p. 291.