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Transition Studies   35

e.g. mercurial horizons, thermometers and barometers, the binocular glasses, steel and stylographic pens ; the progress in clothing, flannel, peacoats and macintoshes; progress in preserved foods; progress in the personnel, the educated classes are physically better developed, which Galton attributes to their leading healthier lives, owing to the heavy eating and drinking having ceased, to the better ventilated bedrootf~s and proper holidays. Lastly he notes the greater ease and quickness with which an explorer can reach the starting-point of his wanderings. The idea suggested in the last sentence probably led Galton to what, I think, was his last contribution to geographical science. In the same year' he constructed an "isochronie passage chart for travellers." It consists of a map of the world on Mercator's projection indicating by five colours in two shades the number of days required to reach from London all parts of the world. The map might easily be a little more detailed as the unit of time ten days is rather large, extending from London to Jerusalem, Peru, and Hammerfest, but -not be it noted in those days to New York. A similar map made to-day would be of much interest, especially in view of the great development in forty years of traps-continental railways and fast steamships. Galton took, as his authorities, =time tables of steamship companies. and railways, with public and private post-office information.

It cannot be denied by those who study Galton's memoirs on geography that they mark a continuous development. He remains to the end keen on the mechanical 'dodges' and graphical artifices which had delighted the boy at Atwood's' and the youth at Cambridge'; but travel for novelty soon became for him travel for a knowledge of physical environment; in this stage Galton was a pure geographer, but then very rapidly the important part of this, environment became for him its relation to man and Galton, without realising the full meaning of the change, had passed from the geographer to the anthropologist`: Even by the `seventies' geography had become a secondary study.

The last of Galton's writings that touches on exploration was his fill preface to W. E. Oswell's William Cotton, Oswell, Hunter and Ex rer of 1900. In this Galton claims justice for Oswell as the first explorer to reach Lake Ngami; Livingstone simply went with Oswell and Murray as a guest, but 4Livingstone's later fame and Oswell's reticence led to a retrospective - credit being given to the former for this first great journey.


Parallel with Galton's geographical research we find a correlated studythat of meteorology. The services he rendered to this science have been only occasionally recognised at their full value, and much that he has suggested would be worthy of reconsideration and adaptation to the modern state of meteorological knowledge.

' "On the Construction of Isochronic Passage Charts," British Association Report, 1881, pp. 740-41; Roy. Geog. Soc. Proc. 1881, pp. jJ7-58.   2 Vol. i, p. 77.   ' Vol. i, p. 148.

* A very valuable letter of Galton's, advocating the adequate representation of Geography and Anthropology in the 'Proposed Imperial Institutes,' will be found in the Times, October 6, 1886 (p. 8).