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Transition Studies   3

finding the path, etc., even to the conclusion of the journey and the printing of the maps, it is all there, tersely given, with just the needful diagrams and sketches. Many are the mechanical `dodges,' here given; of such Galton never wearied. He had watched craftsmen in all the lands through which he had travelled and he never tired of experimenting and of model-making'. And much of this he has used in his Art of T* avel. The reader of his South African book will recognise also the individual experiences which gave rise to several of the hints in the present work.

If a few formulae or a small amount of measurement can be thrown in', Galton will gladly provide them. The following is a good illustration:

"THE RUSH OF AN ENRAGED ANIMAL is far more easily avoided than is usually supposed. The

way the Spanish bull-fighters play with the bull, is well known ; any man can avoid a mere headlong charge. Even the speed of a racer which is undeniably greater than that of any wild quadruped, does not exceed 30 miles an hour, or four times the speed of a man. The speed of an ordinary horse is not more than 24 miles an hour; now even the fastest wild beast is unable to catch an ordinary horse, except by crawling unobserved to his side, and springing upon him; therefore I am convinced that the rush of no wild beast exceeds 24 miles an hour, or three times the speed of a man. ... It is perfectly easy for a person who is cool, to avoid an animal by dodging to one side or another of a bush. Few animals turn, if the rush be unsuccessful. The buffalo is an exception; he regularly hunts a man, and is therefore peculiarly dangerous. Unthinking persons talk of the fearful rapidity of a lion's or tiger's spring. It is not rapid at all; it is a slow movement, as must be evident from the following consideration. No wild animal can leap ten yards, and they all make a high trajectory in their leaps. Now think of the speed of a ball thrown or rather pitched, with just sufficient force to be caught by a person ten yards .off; it is a mere nothing. The catcher can play with it as he likes; he has even time to turn after it, if thrown wide. But the speed of a springing animal is undeniably the same so that of a ball, thrown so as to make a flight of equal length and height in the air. The corollary to all this is that if charged, you must keep cool and watchful, and your chance of escape is far greater than non-sportsmen would imagine." (4th Edn. p. 251.)

While traces of the personality of Galton will be found by those who knew him well on almost every page of the Art of Travel, there are passages which mark unconsciously his views and the course of his development from 1853 to 1867. There are omissions also in later editions which tell exactly the stage he had reached.

From Damaraland and Ovampo few if any animals, birds or insects were brought back. Galton then and in the Art of Travel considered them from the standpoint of sport and food. His list of instruments contains no microscope or dissecting tools, and of books no work on natural history. The sole reference to the collection of specimens occurs in the last paragraph where a description is given of how to make a specimen box from a flat card (3rd Edition, 1860). There is not a. word as to how to observe and record- the anthropometric characters, folk-lore or religious customs of savage man; neither callipers,tape,nor colour standards appear in Galton's instrumentarium.

I The Galton Laboratory possesses a whole series of rough models in card, wood or glass; 'Galton's Toys,' as we call them. Of the purpose of many we know absolutely nothing; others were initial attempts at Galton's hyperscope, heliostat, etc, Besides these 'Toys' are quite a number of instruments chiefly _optical made by practical instrument makers to Galton's plans, but in certain cases it has so far been impossible to determine for what purposes they were intended.