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The Reawakening : Scientific Exploration   227

neighbourhood, and within the probable reach of her future commerce, and which were understood to be in danger of oppression from certain British subjects and others who are in no way connected with your [Jonker's] people. Now this specified tract of country includes Damaraland and my instructions are of so general a character that although not framed with a view to oppose Namaqua oppression in particular, yet in so far as it is oppression, carried on in part by British subjects and in this part of South Africa it becomes my immediate duty to act upon them." [Letter to Captain Jonker Afrikaner from Barmen, Nov. 25, 1850.] Even while Galton was waiting for the answer to this letter to Jonker--which answer the latter sent 300 miles roundthe Hottentots burnt eleven of the remaining 15 werfts of Kaitchend and eleven others belonging to other Damara chiefs, corresponding according to Galton's calculations to about 18,000 head of cattle raided. Galton could not possibly go forward through the middle of this ravaging, and with characteristic pluck, and probably disregarding entirely his very nebulous instructions, he determined to frighten Jonker into more orderly behaviour. His fairly stern letters had • produced no effect. Such was the origin of the "red hunting-coat" expedition as described in the above letter. The end might have been very different, but Galton faced the danger, got abject apologies to the missionary Kolbe and to the British Government signed, and laws proclaimed by the Hottentot chiefs to rule their relations to the Damaras. We reproduce Captain Jonker Afrikaner's promise to the British Government : see Plate LVIII. Translated freely by Galton it runs

I acknowledge that I have done much wrong in this land, but I pledge my word to the English government that from this day forward I will abstain from all injustice to

the Damaras. I promise' that I will with all my power keep peace with them and that I will use my influence as well as I can to persuade the other Captains to do the same.


Witnesses to this signature


Interesting are the notes Galton, then aged 29, wrote for the speech

he made as first lawgiver to this lawless crew. They run as follows Speak about the signatures, strength of England, could furnish every Damara with a gun, could cut off trade to south.

(1)' What is "justice," explained by these laws. 15 laws cannot meet every case, but they will lay down a base on which very many cases may be treated. If ' The numbers refer to the remarks on the special laws which follow this.


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