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32   Life and Letters of Francis Galton

type, even among mankind, can be relatively easily reached by selection and intermarriage, he has only to study the history of the Society of Friends. Great businesses were established by them, and the banking interests of the country were largely in their hands. We are concerned here only with their energy, persistence and industry. They did not apparently always follow the highest dictates of their faith. While in Yorkshire members of the Society were ejected, because they had shares in merchant vessels which carried a gun to protect them against privateers, the Galtons and Farmers set up a gun-factory in Birmingham which supplied large quantities of muskets to the Government. But the business had much wider ramifications ; there were large transactions in Lisbon, and on one occasion £54,000 of slaves were handled in America'. Ultimately in the time of Samuel and Tertius Galton it developed in association with the Farmers into a banking enterprise. Generally with the Galtons as with others we pass from the country to retail trading in the towns, then to large mercantile concerns built up under the new conditions of industry, where the Quaker characteristics produced their' full return.

Let us look a little into some of these other Quaker ancestors of Francis Galton. The Freames spring from Robert Freame of Cirencester'. The pedigree illustrates the three stages, yeomanry, town traders, and ultimately mercantile houses. Thus the brothers Robert and John of Aldgate were grocers, but John was a goldsmith as well. John Freame of Bushhill, Edmonton, married Priscilla Gould, and his sister Hannah married Thomas Gould, probably her brother. Of Robert Freame's children by his first wife the most interesting is Thomas, who went to Philadelphia. He married in 1725 Margaret Penn-daughter of William Penn by his second wife Hannah Callowhill of Bristol-and their daughter, Philadelphia Hannah Freame, became Viscountess Cremorne. It was into the business of the Freames, and' indeed into their very household, that David Barclay of Ury-- came, when he walked up to London. Like the apprentice of romance,

' On the other hand David Barclay of Youngsbury, Tertius Galton's great-uncle, who had come into the possession of £10,000 of slaves for a business debt, carried them to New York, taught them crafts and then, when they could maintain themselves,

emancipated them. This David Barclay (see Plate XXII) was one of the finest characters of his time, a true humanitarian And a worthy descendant of the Apologist.

2 I think this Robert may be the son of Richard Freme (? Freame), mayor of Gloucester, whose pedigree can be further followed in Harleian Publications, Vol.' xxi.

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