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quietly. Immediately on Nangoro's death, which, as recently observed, I have reason to believe was sudden and unnatural, the sovereign sway was assumed by Chypanza, his elder brother, though I imagine this was quite in accordance with the law of succession in the country. There was at the time a strong party who inclined for another chief, at the head of which was Nakonjona (a remarkably intelligent and fine-looking man), but Chypanza, dreading his influence, caused him to be put out of the way. On this, the younger brother of the murdered man, the present chief Chykongo, sent for assistance to Jonker Afrikaner, the famous Namaqua freebooter, who shortly afterwards appeared in Ovampoland with a considerable force. For a while he amused himself by laying heavy contributions of cattle, etc., on the natives, besides slaying very many of them.

" After varying fortunes and manmuvrings, it would seem that at last an open fight between the people of Chypanza and those of Chykongo took place, in which the latter were victorious, entirely dispersing their adversaries, many of whom fled for protection to neighbouring rulers. Since then Chykongo has governed the country, and with the same tyrannical power and freedom as his predecessor, Nangoro, but he seems less reserved with his subjects, who address him much more familiarly."

Extracts from " Pejtort of C. W. Palgrave, of his Mission to Damaraland and Great Namaqualand in 1876." (Cape

Town : 1877).

Page 44" In round numbers it may be stated that Damaraland has an area of ioo,ooo square miles. Of these 20,000 may be struck out as useless or unknown coast, desert, and other barren tracts ; 35,000 square miles are taken up for commonage, and of the remaining 45,000 square miles, one third should be set aside for the occupation of Berg Damaras and Bushmen, and those Namaquas, who at the present time are recognized inhabitants of the country.

" In the 3o,coo square miles remaining, all those who know the country agree that farms for at least 400 families might be fourd, and some of them with sufficient water to be sites for villages. My own observation leads me to the same estimate, although I nm by no means certain that permanent waters could be found