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202   APPENDIX.

vast herds of cattle that once gave additional charms and importance to the country, The exactions and contributions of foreign auxiliaries called in by one or other of the contending parties, and the insidious and destructive `lung sickness,' left but a small remnant of these, their chief wealth. Old Nangoro, the obese king spoken of by Mr. Galton, who was chieftain on my former sojourn here, had died under very suspicious circumstances, and more than one other ruler of the country had subsequently met with a tragical death. But there had now been peace for some years, and the country itself presented the same beautiful appearance as had enchanted me on our first becoming acquainted with it. The like magnificent trees, both forest and fruit, were observable everywhere, and the landscape, as heretofore, was dotted in all directions with patriarchal-looking hamlets, and further enlivened by groups of men, women, and children, occupied in their several vocations. The cheerful twitterings and warblings of numerous birds, moreover, added an additional charm to the scene. I have seen many lands and places, some perhaps, strictly speaking, more beautiful ; but amongst the extensive Savannahs, or the interminable forests of South Africa, which so long has been my home, there was but one Ondonga.

[A few weeks after writing these kindly words, poor Andersson was dead.-F.G.]

Page 225.-"There are no rivers in Ondonga, only an "omuramba," or periodical water-course, containing grass as well as water, which intersects nearly its whole length, and never dries up entirely, even in the hottest summer. From the level nature of the country, however, it hardly drains an area of half-a-mile on either side ; and in extraordinarily wet seasons, therefore, the country is half under water, from which cause, as will naturally be inferred, it becomes extremely unhealthy. But more of this hereafter.

" Neither are there minerals in Ondonga, or, in fact, in any part of the extensive country surrounding it that is claimed by the Ovampo. Iron these people obtain by barter from neighbouring tribes ; and copper is brought to them, in the shape of ore, by the Bushmen who inhabit the border country between Ovampo and Damara lands. With gold and silver they are unacquainted, as also with all other known metals except the two just named.

"The climate of Ondonga cannot be looked on as healthy, the