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viii   INTRODUCTION.

important work, "Inquiries into Human Faculty and its Development," containing the essence of numerous previous memoirs. His general object has been to take note of the varied hereditary faculties of different men, families, and races, to learn how far history has shown the practicability of supplanting inefficient races by better strains, and to consider whether it might not be our duty to make conscious efforts to improve the human race. Those who have not read it can have but a faint idea of the varied interest of the subjects dealt with, the freshness, calmness, impartiality, and suggestiveness with which they are treated, and the number of original investigations of which the results are given. The method of composite portraiture, by superposing and combining on one negative photographs of different persons photographed in the same aspect and under the same conditions of light and shade ; the results of the Anthropometric Committee of the British Association, and of the Collective Investigation Committee of the British Medical Association ; the application of statistical methods to mankind ; the qualities of criminals and insane persons; the remarkable phenomena of mental imagery, which Mr. Galton was the first to investigate; the varying qualities of mind, consciousness, and conscience ; and the strange facts in the history of twins, are but a few out of many profoundly interesting questions dealt with in the book. In its later portion it rises to a high level of practical importance, and of mental and spiritual discussion. While many may dissent from Mr. Gallon's statistical conclusions as to the efficacy of prayer for physical benefits, none can charge him with any but the most temperate, truthseeking, and reverent spirit in his inquiries. Recognising in man the heir of untold ages, standing in the van of circumstance, he believes that man ought to be less diffident than he is, and to realise that he has a considerable function to perform in the order of events, and that his exertions are needed. He should use his intelligence to promote changes suggested by the ascertained tendencies of the progress of evolution; and "his kindly sympathy will urge him to effect them mercifully." He points out numerous directions in which improvements can he effected ; and he sums up his book in the following words, unexpected by many who are not familiar with, nor habitually just to the true aims and teachings of science : " The chief result of these inquiries has been to elicit the religious significance of the doctrine of Evolution. It suggests an alteration in our mental attitude, and imposes a new moral duty. The new mental attitude is one of a